Groups Opposed to Family Planning or Population Control Although crude, the scheme provides a springboard for a number of generalizations: 1. The opposition to family planning in this hemisphere is concentrated among the far right and left. Indeed, the Black Muslims on the one hand, and the older hierarchy of the Catholic Church constitute the major organized opposition in the hemisphere, the former for reasons of "populationism" (the equation of numbers and group power); the latter for fear of increasing hedonism and weakening the family as the basic social unit. 2. Opposition to population control, on the other hand, is found at all points of the political spectrum, though for different reasons. As we shall see, the revolutionaries see it as an imperialistic scheme to weaken the likelihood of drastic social and economic change; the rightists see it as an imperialistic scheme to emasculate the Third World. 3. Approval of family planning is based upon its salutary effects on the individual or family. The leftists see it as enhancing individual (especially female) freedom, the centrists as improving family health and welfare, and the rightists as a means of increasing the discipline, responsibility, and stability of the lower classes—the other side of the promiscuity-hedonism coin. 4. Among those favorable to population control, the center sees it as a means of enhancing or accelerating economic development, or as another general public health measure. The right favors it as a way of improving the lot of poor people without excessive disturbance of the distribution of power and as a way of reducing the growing costs of social welfare programs. In regard to the far left, very few in Latin America favor it, and very few in North America have spoken on the subject. By turning to the published writings of certain of the opponents of family planning or population control in the western hemisphere, some of the categories in Table 7 can be further explicated.* For North America discussion will be limited to the black militants and the new left because so little has been published about these groups and because they are exercising increasing influence on young intellectuals and the elites of tomorrow. The discussion will be organized around three broad values or goals which vary among nations or groups within nations: (a) national power, (b) distributive justice, and (c) individual freedom. National Power All nations are concerned with power in international relations, whether power is viewed in terms of military might, gross national product, or pres- *For discussions of Latin American elitist opinion, see the following section on national power and (15-17).ocacy in a more general framework.